For newbies

Proof of Stake

blockchain cryptocurrency crypto wallet mining

What is Proof of Stake and How Does it Work?

Proof of Stake (PoS) has become a popular consensus algorithm choice in the world of cryptocurrency trading and investments. Instead of relying on computational power, it is based on coins being staked by validators. This mechanism significantly reduces energy consumption while increasing decentralization and security.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Proof of Stake

While Proof of Stake is effective in saving energy and providing high scalability, it may be less accessible for users without cryptocurrency. Additionally, there is a risk of a 51% attack on blockchains with low market capitalization.

How Proof of Stake Works

In the Proof of Stake algorithm, the selection of validators occurs based on random selection from a group of nodes. Participation in the forging process (block creation) requires locking a certain amount of coins in staking and then adding them to the network. The higher the staked coins, the higher the probability of a node being selected as a validator.

Random Selection and Duration-Based Selection

Validator selection can be done in two ways: by randomly selecting a block or based on the duration of staking. The first method determines the validator with the lowest hash value and the highest staked sum, while the second depends on the duration for which coins have been staked.

Transaction Verification and Validator Rewards

Selected validators verify the validity of transactions, sign the block, and add it to the blockchain. As a reward, they receive transaction fees and possibly additional coins. If a validator no longer wishes to participate, their rewards and coins are locked for a certain period for verification by the system.

Advantages of Proof of Stake

  1. Adaptability: PoS can adapt to changing user needs and blockchain requirements, leading to the creation of various algorithm variations suitable for a wide range of blockchain tasks.

  2. Decentralization: Node deployment has become more accessible, and the system encourages user-initiated deployment. Randomization and incentive systems make the network more decentralized, reducing reliance on staking pools.

  3. Energy Efficiency: PoS is much more energy-efficient compared to PoW, as its consensus mechanism requires less energy due to the stake-based economic model.

  4. Scalability: PoS does not require massive mining farms and significant energy consumption to achieve consensus. Using multiple validators makes the network more scalable, accessible, and affordable.

  5. Security: The staking mechanism incentivizes the creation of verified blocks. If fraudulent activity is detected, the validator loses part of their stake and the right to create blocks, reducing the likelihood of a successful 51% attack.

Disadvantages of Proof of Stake

Despite its many advantages, PoS has some drawbacks:

  1. Forks: In the standard PoS mechanism, there are no barriers to mining on both sides of a fork, which can lead to problems. Unlike PoW, where mining on both sides of a fork requires significant energy consumption, PoS allows users to "bet" on both sides.

  2. Accessibility: Participation in staking requires native blockchain tokens, which may require significant investments. Unlike PoW, where cheap mining equipment or renting it is an option, PoS requires holding native tokens.

  3. 51% Attack: Although both PoW and PoS are susceptible to 51% attacks, PoS blockchains are more vulnerable to them. With low market capitalization or falling token prices, attackers can acquire more than 50% of the tokens at a low price and gain control of the network.

Overall, despite its drawbacks, the advantages of PoS make it an attractive choice for many new blockchains.

Variations of Proof of Stake

Proof of Stake is highly adaptable, allowing developers to customize it to suit specific blockchain needs. Some of the most common variations include:

  • Delegated Proof of Stake (DPoS)
  • Nominated Proof of Stake (NPoS)
  • Proof of Staked Authority (PoSA)


With the advent of Bitcoin, methods of adding blocks to the network have significantly evolved. Proof of Stake has proven its effectiveness and advantages over Proof of Work. In the future, Proof of Stake may become the dominant consensus mechanism, while Proof of Work will only be used in some networks. However, regardless of the changes that occur, Proof of Stake will remain an essential element of blockchain technologies.

Our application

Start your journey as a trader